Literature search – May 2016

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Evidence Search Service
Results of your search request

Papers to support regional teaching
ID of request: 8433
Date of request: 21st April, 2016
Date of completion: 25th April, 2016
If you would like to request any articles or any further help, please contact: Tom Roper at tom.roper@bsuh.nhs.uk
Please acknowledge this work in any resulting paper or presentation as: Evidence search: Papers to support regional teaching. Tom Roper. (25th April, 2016). BRIGHTON, UK: Brighton and Sussex Library and Knowledge Service.
Sources searched
MEDLINE (23)
TRIP Database (1)
Date range used (5 years, 10 years): None

 

Limits used (gender, article/study type, etc.): High level evidence
Search terms and notes (full search strategy for database searches below):
Searches were conducted to locate high-level evidence in high impact factor journals, where possible, and with full-text readily available.

For more information about the resources please go to: http://www.bsuh.nhs.uk/library .

 

Contents
Original Research
1. Management of Distal Femur Fractures in Adults: An Overview of Options.
2. Reaming Does Not Affect Functional Outcomes After Open and Closed Tibial Shaft Fractures: The Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.
3. A comparison of 30-day complications following plate fixation versus intramedullary nailing of closed extra-articular tibia fractures.
4. Arthroscopy-assisted surgery for tibial plateau fractures.
5. Definitive fixation of tibial plateau fractures.
6. Diagnosis and treatment of acute extremity compartment syndrome.
7. Experience of managing open fractures of the lower limb at a major trauma centre.
8. Interventions for treating fractures of the distal femur in adults.
9. Intramedullary Nailing and Adjunct Permanent Plate Fixation in Complex Tibia Fractures.
10. Intramedullary nailing versus proximal plating in the management of closed extra-articular proximal tibial fracture: a randomized controlled trial.
11. Management of distal femur fractures with modern plates and nails: state of the art.
12. Periprosthetic fractures following total knee arthroplasty.
13. Post-traumatic knee stiffness: surgical techniques.
14. Recent advances in posterior meniscal root repair techniques.
15. Strategies for surgical approaches in open reduction internal fixation of pilon fractures.
16. Surgical fixation methods for tibial plateau fractures.
17. Compartment syndrome: diagnosis, management, and unique concerns in the twenty-first century.
18. Flap Decisions and Options in Soft Tissue Coverage of the Lower Limb
19. Is surgery effective for deep posterior compartment syndrome of the leg? A systematic review.
20. The problem total knee replacement: systematic, comprehensive and efficient evaluation.
21. The treatment of periprosthetic femur fractures after total knee arthroplasty.
22. Soft-tissue reconstruction of open fractures of the lower limb: muscle versus fasciocutaneous flaps.
23. Pilon fractures: advances in surgical management.
24. Systematic review shows lowered risk of nonunion after reamed nailing in patients with closed tibial shaft fractures.

Original Research
1. Management of Distal Femur Fractures in Adults: An Overview of Options.
Gangavalli K. The Orthopedic clinics of North America 2016;47(1):85-.
Surgical treatment of periarticular and intra-articular fractures of the distal femur pose a significant challenge to the orthopedic surgeon. The primary goal of surgical treatment remains: restoration of the articular surface to the femoral shaft, while maintaining enough stability and alignment to enable early range of motion and rehabilitation. With appropriate surgical planning, these injuries can be managed with a variety of methods and techniques, while taking into account patients’ functional goals, fracture characteristics, health comorbidities, bone quality, and risk of malunion and nonunion.
Available from Elsevier in this link

2. Reaming Does Not Affect Functional Outcomes After Open and Closed Tibial Shaft Fractures: The Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.
Lin A. Journal of orthopaedic trauma 2016;30(3):142-.
We sought to determine the effect of reaming on 1-year 36-item short-form general health survey (SF-36) and short musculoskeletal function assessment (SMFA) scores from the Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in patients with Tibial Fractures.
Available from Ovid in this link

3. A comparison of 30-day complications following plate fixation versus intramedullary nailing of closed extra-articular tibia fractures.
Minhas V. Injury 2015;46(4):734-.
Tibial shaft fractures are often treated by intramedullary nailing (IMN) or plate fixation. Our purpose was to compare the 30-day complication rates between IMN and plate fixation of extra-articular tibial fractures.
Available from Elsevier in this link

4. Arthroscopy-assisted surgery for tibial plateau fractures.
Chen Xing-Zuo Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association 2015;31(1):143-.
This study aimed to summarize the recent clinical outcomes of patients undergoing arthroscopy-assisted reduction and internal fixation (ARIF) for tibial plateau fractures.
Available from Elsevier in this link

5. Definitive fixation of tibial plateau fractures.
Yoon S. The Orthopedic clinics of North America 2015;46(3):363-.
Tibial plateau fractures present in a wide spectrum of injury severity and pattern, each requiring a different approach and strategy to achieve good clinical outcomes. Achieving those outcomes starts with a thorough evaluation and preoperative planning period, which leads to choosing the most appropriate surgical approach and fixation strategy. Through a case-based approach, this article presents the necessary pearls, techniques, and strategies to maximize outcomes and minimize complications for some of the more commonly presenting plateau fracture patterns.
Available from Elsevier in this link

6. Diagnosis and treatment of acute extremity compartment syndrome.
von G. Arvind Lancet (London, England) 2015;386(10000):1299-.
Acute compartment syndrome of the extremities is well known, but diagnosis can be challenging. Ineffective treatment can have devastating consequences, such as permanent dysaesthesia, ischaemic contractures, muscle dysfunction, loss of limb, and even loss of life. Despite many studies, there is no consensus about the way in which acute extremity compartment syndromes should be diagnosed. Many surgeons suggest continuous monitoring of intracompartmental pressure for all patients who have high-risk extremity injuries, whereas others suggest aggressive surgical intervention if acute compartment syndrome is even suspected. Although surgical fasciotomy might reduce intracompartmental pressure, this procedure also carries the risk of long-term complications. In this paper in The Lancet Series about emergency surgery we summarise the available data on acute extremity compartment syndrome of the upper and lower extremities in adults and children, discuss the underlying pathophysiology, and propose a clinical guideline based on the available data.
Available from ProQuest in this link
Available from LANCET in this link
Available from Elsevier in this link

7. Experience of managing open fractures of the lower limb at a major trauma centre.
Ali A.M. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 2015;97(4):287-.
In April 2012 the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford became a major trauma centre (MTC). The British Orthopaedic Association and British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons joint standards for the management of open fractures of the lower limb (BOAST 4) require system-wide changes in referral practice that may be facilitated by the MTC and its associated major trauma network.
Available from ANNALS OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS OF ENGLAND in this link

8. Interventions for treating fractures of the distal femur in adults.
Griffin L. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 2015;8:-.
Fractures of the distal femur (the part of the thigh bone nearest the knee) are a considerable cause of morbidity. Various different surgical and non-surgical treatments have been used in the management of these injuries but the best treatment remains controversial.
Available from John Wiley and Sons in this link

9. Intramedullary Nailing and Adjunct Permanent Plate Fixation in Complex Tibia Fractures.
Yoon S. Journal of orthopaedic trauma 2015;29(8):-.
The use of adjunct plate fixation is known to be a useful reduction aid during intramedullary nailing of the proximal tibia. We have expanded the indications beyond aiding the reduction and now use these plates as an adjunct to intramedullary nailing during the healing period. Specific indications include diaphyseal tibial fractures with severe bone loss/comminution and segmental tibial fractures with or without intraarticular extension. We believe the adjunctive permanent plate fixation technique may offer a treatment solution in these selected situations with the added benefit of immediate weight bearing.
Available from Ovid in this link

10. Intramedullary nailing versus proximal plating in the management of closed extra-articular proximal tibial fracture: a randomized controlled trial.
Meena Ramesh Chand Journal of orthopaedics and traumatology : official journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology 2015;16(3):203-.
Extra-articular proximal tibial fractures account for 5-11 % of all tibial shaft fractures. In recent years, closed reduction and minimally invasive plating and multidirectional locked intramedullary nailing have both become widely used treatment modalities for proximal and distal tibial metaphyseal fractures. This study was performed to compare plating and nailing options in proximal tibia extra-articular fractures.
Available from National Library of Medicine in this link
Available from National Library of Medicine in this link

11. Management of distal femur fractures with modern plates and nails: state of the art.
Beltran J. Journal of orthopaedic trauma 2015;29(4):165-.
Fractures of the distal femur, even those with articular extension, are well suited to surgical fixation with modern precontoured anatomic plates and nails. Numerous adjuvant techniques are available to the treating surgeon to obtain and maintain reduction while preserving fracture biology. Yet despite their proven track record and benefits over older implants, technical errors are common and must be overcome with proper preoperative planning and intraoperative attention to detail. This review summarizes the current state of the art regarding distal femur fractures, with an emphasis on relevant modern plate and nail surgical techniques, tempered by our current understanding of implant biomechanics, fracture healing, and long-term outcomes.
Available from Ovid in this link

12. Periprosthetic fractures following total knee arthroplasty.
Yoo Jae Doo Knee surgery & related research 2015;27(1):1-.
Periprosthetic fractures after total knee arthroplasty may occur in any part of the femur, tibia and patella, and the most common pattern involves the supracondylar area of the distal femur. Supracondylar periprosthetic fractures frequently occur above a well-fixed prosthesis, and risk factors include anterior femoral cortical notching and use of the rotational constrained implant. Periprosthetic tibial fractures are frequently associated with loose components and malalignment or malposition of implants. Fractures of the patella are much less common and associated with rheumatoid arthritis, use of steroid, osteonecrosis and malalignment of implants. Most patients with periprosthetic fractures around the knee are the elderly with poor bone quality. There are many difficulties and increased risk of nonunion after treatment because reduction and internal fixation is interfered with by preexisting prosthesis and bone cement. Additionally, previous soft tissue injury is another disadvantageous condition for bone healing. Many authors reported good clinical outcomes after non-operative treatment of undisplaced or minimally displaced periprosthetic fractures; however, open reduction or revision arthroplasty was required in displaced fractures or fractures with unstable prosthesis. Periprosthetic fractures around the knee should be prevented by appropriate technique during total knee arthroplasty. Nevertheless, if a periprosthetic fracture occurs, an appropriate treatment method should be selected considering the stability of the prosthesis, displacement of fracture and bone quality.

13. Post-traumatic knee stiffness: surgical techniques.
Pujol N. Orthopaedics & traumatology, surgery & research : OTSR 2015;101(1):-.
Post-traumatic knee stiffness and loss of range of motion is a common complication of injuries to the knee area. The causes of post-traumatic knee stiffness can be divided into flexion contractures, extension contractures, and combined contractures. Post-traumatic stiffness can be due to the presence of dense intra-articular adhesions and/or fibrotic transformation of peri-articular structures. Various open and arthroscopic surgical treatments are possible. A precise diagnosis and understanding of the pathology is mandatory prior to any surgical treatment. Failure is imminent if all pathologies are not addressed correctly. From a general point of view, a flexion contracture is due to posterior adhesions and/or anterior impingement. On the other hand, extension contractures are due to anterior adhesions and/or posterior impingement. This overview will describe the different modern surgical techniques for treating post-traumatic knee stiffness. Any bony impingements must be treated before soft tissue release is performed. Intra-articular stiff knees with a loss of flexion can be treated by an anterior arthroscopic arthrolysis. Extra-articular pathology causing a flexion contracture can be treated by open or endoscopic quadriceps release. Extension contractures can be treated by arthroscopic or open posterior arthrolysis. Postoperative care (analgesia, rehabilitation) is essential to maintaining the range of motion obtained intra-operatively.
Available from Elsevier in this link

14. Recent advances in posterior meniscal root repair techniques.
LaPrade F. The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 2015;23(2):71-.
Posterior root avulsions of the medial and lateral menisci result in decreased areas of tibiofemoral contact and increased tibiofemoral contact pressures. These avulsions may lead to the development of osteoarthritis. Therefore, two surgical techniques, the transtibial pullout repair and the suture anchor repair, have recently been developed to restore the native structure and function of the meniscal root attachment. Compared with the historical alternative of partial or total meniscectomy, these techniques allow for meniscal preservation and anatomic reduction of the meniscal roots, with the goal of preventing the development and progression of osteoarthritis. However, early biomechanical and clinical studies have reported conflicting results on the effectiveness of both techniques with regard to resisting displacement and facilitating healing. Although there is currently a lack of consensus on which is the superior technique, transtibial pullout and suture anchor repairs are increasingly used in clinical practice.
Available from Ovid in this link

15. Strategies for surgical approaches in open reduction internal fixation of pilon fractures.
Assal Mathieu Journal of orthopaedic trauma 2015;29(2):69-.
Pilon or tibial plafond fractures usually result from high-energy injuries with rotation and/or axial compression. They occur in an area of relatively poor soft tissue coverage and frequently present a surgical challenge in deciding which incisions will be best for performing open reduction internal fixation. A variety of anterior and posterior approaches have been described based on the ease of fracture reduction and internal fixation with plates. Some of the incisions are fracture specific, that is, planned for a limited approach to the pilon. But in more complex cases, a wider exposure is indicated and thus more extensile approaches, both anterior and posterior, can be valuable. This review article will describe the different surgical approaches, focusing on their indication and technique.
Available from Ovid in this link

16. Surgical fixation methods for tibial plateau fractures.
McNamara R. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 2015;9:-.
Fractures of the tibial plateau, which are intra-articular injuries of the knee joint, are often difficult to treat and have a high complication rate, including early-onset osteoarthritis. Surgical fixation is usually used for more complex tibial plateau fractures. Additionally, bone void fillers are often used to address bone defects caused by the injury. Currently there is no consensus on either the best method of fixation or bone void filler.
Available from John Wiley and Sons in this link

17. Compartment syndrome: diagnosis, management, and unique concerns in the twenty-first century.
Garner R. HSS journal : the musculoskeletal journal of Hospital for Special Surgery 2014;10(2):143-.
Compartment syndrome is an elevation of intracompartmental pressure to a level that impairs circulation. While the most common etiology is trauma, other less common etiologies such as burns, emboli, and iatrogenic injuries can be equally troublesome and challenging to diagnose. The sequelae of a delayed diagnosis of compartment syndrome may be devastating. All care providers must understand the etiologies, high-risk situation, and the urgency of intervention.
Available from National Library of Medicine in this link
Available from National Library of Medicine in this link
Available from ProQuest in this link

18. Flap Decisions and Options in Soft Tissue Coverage of the Lower Limb
Jordan DJ Open Orthopaedics Journal 2014;31(8):423-32.
THE LOWER EXTREMITIES OF THE HUMAN BODY ARE MORE COMMONLY KNOWN AS THE HUMAN LEGS, INCORPORATING: the foot, the lower or anatomical leg, the thigh and the hip or gluteal region. The human lower limb plays a simpler role than that of the upper limb. Whereas the arm allows interaction of the surrounding environment, the legs’ primary goals are support and to allow upright ambulation. Essentially, this means that reconstruction of the leg is less complex than that required in restoring functionality of the upper limb. In terms of reconstruction, the primary goals are based on the preservation of life and limb, and the restoration of form and function. This paper aims to review current and past thoughts on reconstruction of the lower limb, discussing in particular the options in terms of soft tissue coverage. This paper does not aim to review the emergency management of open fractures, or the therapy alternatives to chronic wounds or malignancies of the lower limb, but purely assess the requirements that should be reviewed on reconstructing a defect of the lower limb. A summary of flap options are considered, with literature support, in regard to donor and recipient region, particularly as flap coverage is regarded as the cornerstone of soft tissue coverage of the lower limb.
Available online at this link

19. Is surgery effective for deep posterior compartment syndrome of the leg? A systematic review.
Winkes B. British journal of sports medicine 2014;48(22):1592-.
Results of surgery for lower leg deep posterior chronic exertional compartment syndrome (dp-CECS) are inferior compared to other types of CECS. Factors influencing suboptimal surgical results are unknown. The purpose of this systematic review was to provide a critical analysis of the existing literature on the surgical management of dp-CECS aimed at identifying parameters determining surgical results.
Available from Highwire Press in this link

20. The problem total knee replacement: systematic, comprehensive and efficient evaluation.
Vince K.G. The bone & joint journal 2014;96(11):105-.
There are many reasons why a total knee replacement (TKR) may fail and qualify for revision. Successful revision surgery depends as much on accurate assessment of the problem TKR as it does on revision implant design and surgical technique. Specific modes of failure require specific surgical solutions. Causes of failure are often presented as a list or catalogue, without a system or process for making a decision. In addition, strict definitions and consensus on modes of failure are lacking in published series and registry data. How we approach the problem TKR is an essential but neglected aspect of understanding knee replacement surgery. It must be carried out systematically, comprehensively and efficiently. Eight modes of failure are described: 1) sepsis; 2) extensor discontinuity; 3) stiffness; 4) tibial- femoral instability; 5) patellar tracking; 6) aseptic loosening and osteolysis; 7) periprosthetic fracture and 8) component breakage. A ninth ‘category’, unexplained pain is an indication for further investigation but not surgery.
Available from Highwire Press in this link

21. The treatment of periprosthetic femur fractures after total knee arthroplasty.
Kancherla K. The Orthopedic clinics of North America 2014;45(4):457-.
Periprosthetic femur fractures after total knee arthroplasty are a rising concern; however, when properly diagnosed, they can be managed nonoperatively or operatively in the form of locking plate fixation, intramedullary nailing, and arthroplasty. The degree of osteoporosis, stability of the femoral implant, and goals of the patient are a few critical variables in determining the ideal treatment. Despite excellent outcomes from each of these operative choices, the risk of nonunion, malunion, instability, and refracture cannot be ignored.
Available from Elsevier in this link

22. Soft-tissue reconstruction of open fractures of the lower limb: muscle versus fasciocutaneous flaps.
Chan K.K. K-K Plastic and reconstructive surgery 2012;130(2):284-.
Early vascularized soft-tissue closure has long been recognized to be essential in achieving eventual infection-free union. The question of whether muscle or fasciocutaneous tissue is superior in terms of promoting fracture healing remains unresolved. In this article, the authors review the experimental and clinical evidence for the different tissue types and advocate that the biological role of flaps should be included as a key consideration during flap selection.
Available from Ovid in this link

23. Pilon fractures: advances in surgical management.
Crist D. The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 2011;19(10):612-.
Pilon fractures are challenging to manage because of the complexity of the injury pattern and the risk of significant complications. Variables such as fracture pattern, soft-tissue injury, and preexisting patient factors can lead to unpredictable outcomes. Avoiding complications associated with the soft-tissue envelope is paramount to optimizing outcomes. In persons with soft-tissue compromise, the use of temporary external fixation and staged management is helpful in reducing further injury and complications. Evidence in support of new surgical approaches and minimally invasive techniques is incomplete. Soft-tissue management, such as negative-pressure dressings, may be helpful in preventing complications.
Available from Ovid in this link

24. Systematic review shows lowered risk of nonunion after reamed nailing in patients with closed tibial shaft fractures.
Lam S.W. Injury 2010;41(7):671-.
Nonunion after intramedullary nailing (IMN) in patients with tibial shaft fractures occurs up to 16%. There is no agreement whether reaming prior to IMN insertion would reduce the nonunion rate. We aimed to compare the nonunion rate between reamed and unreamed IMN in patients with tibial shaft fractures. A systematic search was conducted in Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. The selected publications were: (1) randomised controlled trials; (2) comparing the nonunion rate; (3) in patients with tibial shaft fractures; (4) treated with either reamed or unreamed IMN. Seven studies that satisfied the criteria were identified. They showed that reamed IMN led to reduction of nonunion rate compared to unreamed IMN in closed tibial shaft fractures (risk difference ranging 7.0-20%, number needed to treat ranging 5-14), while the difference between compared treatments for open tibial shaft fractures was not clinically relevant. The evidence showed a consistent trend of reduced nonunion rate in closed tibial shaft fracture treated with reamed compared to unreamed IMN.
Available from Elsevier in this link
Available from INJURY: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CARE OF THE INJURED in this link

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